quinta-feira, 28 de abril de 2011

Prime 8: What Lies Ahead (2)

Artificial Organ Regrowth - NOVA scienceNOW


  • An artificial lung ____________________ (to grow) in a laboratory.
  • In the future, spare organs _____________________ (to manufacture) in a facility somewhere and ________________________ (to keep) in jars until they ___________________(to need).
  • The organs _______________________ (to accept) by transplant patients, and _______________________ (to reject) because they ________________________ (to make) from the patient’s own cells.
  • If identical, ideal organ replacements _________________________ (to develop) for each patient from his/her own cells, donors __________________________ (to need).
  • Organs _______________________ (only - to grow) without a body if a structure or scaffold _________________________ (to build) for cells to develop on.

The Island - Trailer (2005)
Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells

segunda-feira, 25 de abril de 2011

quinta-feira, 21 de abril de 2011

5A - Contemporary Issues / Urban Development

Sustainable urban development in Zaragoza Spain (Eco Ciudad Valdespartera)

Urban Sprawl - Iowa Public Television

Bogotá Building A Sustainable City (Part 1 of 3)

Designing The Future (The Venus Project)


Legal English: SB1070 Review Exercise (Bolton Ruling)

The Court notes that S.B. 1070 is not a _____ statute; rather, it is an _____ of the Arizona Legislature that adds some new sections to the Arizona Revised Statutes (“A.R.S.”) and _____ some preexisting sections. S.B. 1070 also contains a _____ clause, providing that, [i]f a provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held _____, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of the act. Therefore, the Court cannot and will not _____ S.B. 1070 in its entirety.

amends      freestanding      enjoin       enactment        invalid        severability

Applying the _____ legal standards based upon well-established _____, the Court finds that the United States is _____ to succeed on the merits in showing that the four Sections of S.B. 1070 are _____ by federal law. The Court also finds that the United States is _____ to suffer _____ harm if the Court does not preliminarily _____ enforcement of these Sections of S.B. 1070 and that the balance of _____ tips in the United States’ favor considering the public interest.

proper     equities       precedent      irreparable       preempted      likely(2)       enjoin

TheUnited States argues that the overall statutory _____ of S.B. 1070 is _____ because it attempts to set immigration _____at the state level and interferes and conflicts with federal immigration law, foreign relations, and foreign _____. (Id. at 12-25.) Section 1 of S.B. 1070 declares a unified, state-wide public policy, providing:

The legislature declares that the _____of this act is to make _____ through enforcement the public policy of all state and local government agencies in Arizona. The provisions of this act are intended to work together to discourage and _____ the unlawful entry and presence of aliens and economic activity by persons unlawfully _____ in the United States.

preempted      intent      present      scheme      policy(2)      deter      attrition

The United States _____ that mandatory determination of immigration status for all arrestees “_____ with federal law because it necessarily imposes substantial _____ on lawful immigrants in a way that frustrates the _____ of Congress for nationally-uniform rules _____ the treatment of aliens _____ the country – rules designed to ensure ‘our traditional _____ of not treating aliens as a thing apart.’” (Pl.’s Mot. at 26 (quoting Hines v. Davidowitz, 312 U.S. 52, 73 (1941)).)

concern      asserts      throughout      governing      conflicts      policy       burdens

The United States argues that the _____ of requests for immigration status determination _____ to the federal government or federally-qualified officials would “_____ shift the _____ of federal resources away from federal priorities.” (Pl.’s Mot. at 30.)

directed      influx      impermissibly       allocation

The court finds that the United States has demonstrated it is _____ to succeed on its claim that the mandatory immigration _____ upon arrest requirement contained in Section 2(B) of S.B. 1070 is preempted by federal law. This requirement, as stated above, is _____ to _____ legally-present aliens, in _____ of the Supreme Court’s _____ in Hines that aliens not be subject to “the possibility of _____ practices and police _____.” 312 U.S. at 74.

contravention      burden      surveillance      directive      likely(2)       verification      inquisitorial

In combination with the _____ burden this provision will _____ on lawfully-present aliens, the burden on federal resources and priorities also _____ to an inference of _____. Therefore, for the purposes of preliminary injunction analysis, the Court concludes that the United States has demonstrated a _____of success on its challenge to the first sentence of Section 2(B). Section 2(B) in its entirety is _____ preempted by federal law.

place      preemption      impermissible       leads       likely       likelihood

Section 3 attempts to _____ or complement the uniform, national registration _____ by making it a state crime to violate the federal alien registration requirements, which a state may not do “_____ with the purpose of Congress.” Hines, 312 U.S. at 66-67; see also A.R.S. § 13-1509(A). While Section 3 does not create additional registration requirements, the statute does aim to create state _____ and lead to state _____ for violation of the federal law. Although the alien registration requirements remain uniform, Section 3 alters the _____ established by Congress under the federal registration _____.

inconsistently      supplement       penalties(2)      scheme(2)        prosecutions

Considering the substantial complexity in determining whether a particular public offense makes an alien _____ from the United States and the fact that this determination is _____ made by federal judges, there is a _____ likelihood that officers will _____ arrest legal resident aliens under the new A.R.S. § 13-3883(A)(5). By enforcing this statute, Arizona would _____ a “distinct, unusual and extraordinary” burden on legal resident aliens that only the federal government has the authority to ¬¬¬¬¬_____. Hines, 312 U.S. at 65-66.

ultimately      wrongfully      substantial(2)         removable        impose(2)

Legal English: SB 1070 Vocab. Review (injunction appeal brief)

On the question of whether SB 1070 is _____ by federal Law, Arizona argues that it cannot be, since Congress has repeatedly encouraged cooperation and assistance from state and local authorities in _____ federal immigration laws, and it is, they say, Congress’ _____ that controls whether S.B. 1070 is _____. Arizona maintains that, in granting the US a preliminary injunction, the lower court judge misapplied the law by _____ principles of federal law, by disregarding her obligation to presume that Arizona will implement the provisions in a constitutional manner, and by ignoring the United States’ _____ on a facial challenge to show that the provisions of S.B. 1070 are unconstitutional in all of their applications.
burden     enforcing        misconstruing       preempted(2)      intent

The United States filed its complaint and _____ for a preliminary injunction to _____ enforcement of S.B. 1070. Arizona _____ the motion. Following a _____, the district court issued an order _____ four provisions of S.B. 1070 based on its conclusion that the United States was _____ to succeed on its claims that federal law _____ each of the provisions.
moved      preempts      hearing      enjoin       likely      enjoining      opposed

Arizona states that Congress _____ 8 U.S.C. § 1644, which provides: “Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal, State, or local law, no State or local government _____ may be prohibited, or in any way _____, from sending to or receiving from federal immigration authorities information regarding the immigration status, _____ or _____, of _____ in the United States.” Arizona argues that it is the _____ of Congress to give State and local officials the authority to communicate with [ICE] regarding the presence, whereabouts, or activities of illegal _____.

entity      restricted      unlawful      intent      enacted      lawful       aliens(2)

Arizona contends that the preliminary injunction should be _____ as to each of the four sections of S.B. 1070 that the district court _____. They claim that, under a _____ application of the facts and law, the district court could not have _____ that the United States is likely to _____on the _____ . Arizona says the judge _____ to conclude that the injunction serves the public interest.
enjoined      found      merits       erred      proper       prevail       vacated

At issue in this appeal are four sections of SB 1070. Section 2 (B) requires law enforcement officials or agencies of the state to make a reasonable attempt, when _____, to determine a person’s immigration _____ during a “lawful stop, _____ or arrest” if there is a reasonable _____ “that the person is an _____ and is unlawfully present in the United States” and the investigation will not _____ or obstruct an investigation.
alien      status       detention        suspicion        hinder       practicable

Section 3 of S.B. 1070 _____ that: “In addition to any violation of federal law, a person is guilty of _____ failure to complete or _____ an alien registration document if the person is in violation of 8 [U.S.C. §§] 1304(e) or 1306(a).” S.B. 1070, § 3(A). Section 3 _____ the same maximum _____ for violations of subsection (A) that Congress has _____ for violations of 8 U.S.C. § 1304(e).
carry      imposes      penalties      provides      willful       imposed

Section 5(C) of S.B. 1070 makes it a Class 1 _____ for “a person who is unlawfully present in the United States and who is an _____ alien to _____ apply for work, _____ work in a public place or perform work as an employee or independent _____ in this state.”
unauthorized      knowingly       solicit      contractor       misdemeanor

Section 6 of S.B. 1070 adds to the authority Arizona peace officers have under A.R.S. § 13-3883(A) to arrest a person without a _____by authorizing such arrests when “the officer has _____ to believe . . . [t]he person to be arrested has committed any public _____ that makes the person _____ from the United States.”
probable cause       removable       offense        warrant

sexta-feira, 15 de abril de 2011

Translation: Academic/medical


Evaluating the Risks of Clinical Research

The ethical appropriateness of clinical research depends on protecting participants from excessive risks. Yet no systematic framework has been developed to assess research risks, and as a result, investigators, funders, and review boards rely only on their intuitive judgments. Because intuitive judgments of risk are subject to well-documented cognitive biases, this approach raises concern that research participants are not being adequately protected. To address this situation, we delineate a method called the systematic evaluation of research risks (SERR), which evaluates the risks of research interventions by comparing these interventions with the risks of comparator activities that have been deemed acceptable. This method involves a 4-step process: (1) identify the potential harms posed by the proposed research intervention; (2) categorize the magnitude of the potential harms into 1 of 7 harm levels on a harm scale; (3) quantify or estimate the likelihood of each potential harm;

quarta-feira, 13 de abril de 2011

Legal English: SB1070 Review Exercise (original complaint)

In US v. Arizona the United States seeks to _____ invalid and preliminarily and permanently _____ the enforcement of S.B. 1070, as amended and _____ by the State of Arizona, because S.B. 1070 is _____ by federal law and therefore violates the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution.

enacted    enjoin    preempted    declare

The plaintiff argues that the federal government has _____ authority to regulate immigration _____ under the US Constitution and that a state may not establish its own immigration _____ or _____ state laws in a manner that interferes with the federal immigration laws. The Constitution and the federal immigration laws do not permit the development of a _____ of state and local immigration policies throughout the country.

matters     policy    preeminent    patchwork    enforce

S.B. 1070’s provisions, working in concert and separately, seek to _____ and punish _____ entry and presence by requiring, whenever practicable, the determination of immigration _____ during any lawful stop by the police where there is “reasonable suspicion” that an individual is _____ present, and by establishing new state criminal _____ against _____ present aliens.

unlawful    deter    sanctions    unlawfully(2)    status

The US maintains that the Arizona legislation pursues only one goal – “_____” – and ignores the many other objectives that Congress has established for the federal immigration system. And even in pursuing _____, S.B. 1070 _____ federal _____ priorities and resources that focus on aliens who _____ a threat to national security or public safety. If allowed to _____,

pose    disrupts    enforcement    go into effect    attrition(2)

the US charges, 1070’s mandatory enforcement _____ will _____ with and _____ the federal government’s careful balance of immigration _____ priorities and objectives. For example, it will impose significant and counterproductive _______ on the federal agencies charged with enforcing the national immigration _____, diverting resources and attention from the dangerous aliens who the federal government targets as its top _____ priority.

conflict    undermine    enforcement(2)    scheme(2)    burdens

It will cause the _____ and _____ of authorized visitors, immigrants, and citizens who do not have or _____ identification documents specified by the statute, or who otherwise will be swept into the _____ of S.B. 1070’s “_____ through _____” approach.

harassment    detention    carry    ambit    attrition    enforcement

The US states that Congress, which _____ exclusive authority for establishing alien _____ categories and setting the conditions of aliens’ entry and continued presence, has _____ decided that _____ presence – standing alone – should not subject an alien to criminal _____ and incarceration although unlawful presence may subject the alien to the civil _____ of removal.

status    affirmatively    holds    penalties    unlawful    remedy

The United States seeks the following _____: (1) a _____ judgment stating that Sections 1-6 of S.B. 1070 are invalid, null, and _____ ; (2) a _____ and a permanent injunction against the State of Arizona, and its officers, agents, and employees, prohibiting the _____ of Sections 1-6 of S.B. 1070.

declaratory    relief     preliminary     enforcement    void

quarta-feira, 6 de abril de 2011

5A - School and Beyond

CNNMoney.com Video / College Prestige versus Value

EducationUSA Video:

Masschusetts College of Art / Living on Campus:

Harvard University English as a Second Language Program: http://www.iel.harvard.edu/about/video/;jsessionid=FMHJHEEDJEDE

Casa Thomas Jefferson's EducationUSA Advising Office (EAO):

Legal English: Arizona's S.B. 1070 Supplement

9th Circuit Panel Upholds SB 1070 Injunction


The Opinion


Jurist.org/Univ. of Pittsburgh

Probable Cause

“Facially Unconstitutional” or “Unconstitutional As Applied”


News Video

9th Circuit Announcement - Oral Arguments



Case Filings

NPR Analysis